Embedded design refers to the development under embedded operating system, including the hardware and software under the guidance of systematic design and comprehensive research and development. In addition to the temporary separation of hardware EDA research and development, focusing on the systematic design and software research and development under certain hardware conditions.
The complete process of embedded design includes the use of discrete components or integrated devices for circuit design, structure design, then software programming, experiments, after many rounds of modification design, production, and finally complete the development of the entire system. Such embedded design and development is suitable for the system where the product is relatively simple, the output is relatively large, the product development cycle is relatively long and the cost control is relatively strict.
Many industries will use embedded technology, such as mobile phones, PDA, vehicle navigation, industrial control, military, multimedia terminals, gateways, digital television and so on. Embedded technology is not only a simple software technology or hardware technology, embedded technology is a comprehensive technology to develop and build a specific programmable software system on a specific hardware environment.
History of embedded design systems
In November 1971, arithmetic arithmetic and controller circuits were successfully integrated together, and the first microprocessor was launched. Subsequently, manufacturers introduced 8-bit and 16-bit microprocessors one after another. These microprocessors as the core of the system is widely used in instruments, medical equipment, robotics, household appliances and other fields. The wide application of microprocessor has formed a broad embedded application market, and computer manufacturers began to provide OEM products to users in a large number of plug-in ways, and then the user according to their own needs to choose a suitable set of CPU board, memory board and various I/O plug-in board, so as to form a special embedded HMI system, and embed it in their own system equipment.
In the 1980s, with the improvement of microelectronics technology level, integrated circuit manufacturers began to integrate microprocessor, I/O interface, A/D converter, D/A converter, serial interface, RAM, ROM and other components needed in embedded computer applications into a VLSI, so as to manufacture microcontroller oriented to I/O design. That is commonly known as the single chip microcomputer. SCM has become a new star in embedded computer.
In the 1990s, embedded systems developed rapidly, driven by the huge demand for distributed control, flexible manufacturing, digital communication and information home appliances. DSP products oriented to real-time signal processing algorithms are developing towards high speed, high precision and low power consumption.
The 21st century is an era of network prevalence. It is an important direction of its development to apply embedded system to all kinds of networks.
The development of embedded design system has roughly gone through the following three stages
Phase 1: Early stages of embedding technology. The embedded system exists in the form of programmable controller with simple function, special computer or single chip microcomputer as the core. It has the functions of monitoring, servo, equipment indication and so on. This system is mostly used in various industrial control and aircraft, missiles and other weapons and equipment.
Phase 2: marked by high-end embedded CPU and embedded operating system. The main feature of this stage system is the emergence of high reliability and low power embedded CPU in the computer hardware, such as ARM, PowerPC, etc., and support the operating system, support the development and operation of complex applications.
Phase 3: marked by chip technology and Internet technology. With the rapid development of microelectronic technology, SOC (system on chip) makes embedded systems smaller and smaller, but more powerful. At present, most embedded systems are isolated from the Internet, but with the development of Internet and the combination of Internet technology with information home appliances and industrial control technology, embedded technology is entering a period of rapid development and wide application.
The composition of embedded design system
Embedded systems are used in all the industries mentioned above. Embedded systems consist of hardware and software and are devices that can operate independently.
According to the architecture, embedded design system is divided into hardware layer, middle layer, system software layer and application software layer.
The hardware layer includes embedded microprocessor, memory, universal device interface and I/O interface, which is also the core of embedded system. In addition, the memory sits between main memory and the embedded microprocessor core and holds the program code and data that the microprocessor has used most recently. Its main goal is to reduce memory access bottleneck caused by memory to microprocessor core and make processing speed faster.
The middle tier is also known as Hardware Abstraction Layer HAL or board level support Package BSP. It separates the upper software and the bottom hardware of the system, so that the upper software developers of the system need not relate to the specific situation of the bottom hardware, according to the interface development provided by the BSP layer. Designing a complete BSP requires hardware initialization and BSP functionality of the embedded system, as well as the design of hardware related device drivers.
The system software layer is composed of RTOS, file system, GUI, network system and general module. RTOS is the foundation and development platform of embedded application software.
Finally, there is the application software layer, which consists of applications developed based on real-time systems. embedded design.
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